A Grammar of IrabuA Southern Ryukyuan Language

Studies in the Humanities 12
Michinori Shimoji
10,000 yen (excl. tax)
15.4 x 2.9 x 23.2 cm (6 x 1.1 x 9.1 inches), Hardback, 462 pages
February 2017
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Chapter 1 The Irabu language and its speakers
 1.1. Geography
 1.2. Genealogy
 1.3. Notes on the settlement and political history of the Rykuku Islands
 1.4. Sociolinguistic overview
  1.4.1. The name of the language
  1.4.2. Dialects
  1.4.3. The number of speakers
 1.5. Previous works on Irabu
  1.5.1. Detailed grammars
  1.5.2. Grammatical sketches
  1.5.3. Works on specifi c topics Phonological studies Morphosyntactic studies
  1.5.4. Dictionaries, texts, and unpublished materials
 1.6. A typological overview of Irabu
  1.6.1. Phonology
  1.6.2. Morphosyntax
 1.7. Method and data
 1.8. Organisation of this grammar
Chapter 2 Phonology
 2.1. Segmentation
  2.1.1. Grammatical word
  2.1.2. Phonological word
 2.2. Classes of phonemes
  2.2.1. Consonants
  2.2.2. Glides
  2.2.3. Vowels
 2.3. Minimal or quasi-minimal contrasts
  2.3.1. Consonants (stops, fricatives, and resonants)
  2.3.2. Glides
  2.3.3. Vowels
 2.4. The structure of the root word
  2.4.1. Word template
  2.4.2. Nucleic resonants
  2.4.3. Heavy structures
  2.4.4. Examples of root word structures Examples of words with an initial syllable only Examples of words with an initial and a non-initial syllable, showing the structure of the initial syllable Examples of words with an initial and a non-initial syllable, showing the structure of the non-initial syllable Examples of words with a presyllable plus initial syllable Examples of words consisting only of a presyllable (a syllabic resonant)
 2.5. Phonotactics of the word-plus
  2.5.1. Four primary phonotactic constraints of the word(-plus) Final C Medial cluster Cluster of non-resonants Ban on /C.V/ sequence
  2.5.2. Long vowels and diphthongs
  2.5.3. Single onset of initial and non-initial syllables
  2.5.4. Initial syllable onset cluster
  2.5.5. Non-initial cluster Geminates Partial geminates (homorganic /n/ + C of any place of articulation) Non-geminates (resonant Ci + resonant/non-resonant Cj)
  2.5.6. Presyllable plus initial syllable onset Geminates Partial geminates (homorganic /n(n)/ + C of any place of articulation) Non-geminates
  2.5.7. Frequecy-based account of root structures
  2.5.8. Consonant allophony
 2.6. Mora
  2.6.1. Defi nition
  2.6.2. Minimal word
  2.6.3. Length (quantity) contrast Short vs. long Non-geminate vs. geminate
 2.7. Phonological alternation rules
  2.7.1. Sequential voicing
  2.7.2. Geminate copy insertion rule
  2.7.3. The /ї/-insertion rule
  2.7.4. The /ï/-spreading rule
  2.7.5. Resonant geminate reduction
  2.7.6. Sequential nasal deletion
  2.7.7. Morpheme-specifi c alternation rules /j/-insertion for topic and accusative particles /s/-to-/r/ assimilation
 2.8. Miscellaneous segmental issues
  2.8.1. Homorganic nasal clusters in roots
  2.8.2. Non-nasal alveolar resonants /v/ and /ž/
  2.8.3. The status of glides General remarks Advantages in assuming a complex CG
  2.8.4. The phonemic analysis of long vowels
  2.8.5. The problem of the long /ï ï/
 2.9. Prosody
  2.9.1. Prosodic patterns of root words Prosodic patterns of W2 Prosodic patterns of W3 Prosodic patterns of W4 and longer words Summary
  2.9.2. Footing Defi nition of the foot Ternary footing
  2.9.3. Tone assignment The Principle of Rhythmic Alternation The rule Summary
  2.9.4. Phrasal mapping of the alternating rhythm
 2.10. Phonological characteristics of compounds
  2.10.1. Productive compounds
  2.10.2. Lexicalised compounds
Chapter 3 Descriptive preliminaries
 3.1. Phrase structure
  3.1.1. Predicate phrase Verbal predicate Nominal predicate
  3.1.2. Nominal phrase
 3.2. Word, affi x and clitic
  3.2.1. Morphological dependency Isolatability test Reordering test Combinability test
  3.2.2. Phonological dependency Overview External clitics
  3.2.3. Problematic cases Auxuliary verb Clitics of the bound-word type Clitics with a limited combinability with a phonological host
 3.3. Word classes
  3.3.1. Nominals
  3.3.2. Adnominals
  3.3.3. Verbs
  3.3.4. Adjectives
  3.3.5. Bound markers Argument markers Predicate markers Discourse markers Relative ordering within bound marker chains
  3.3.6. Others Underived adverbs Derived adverbs Conjunctions Interjections
 3.4. Grammatical relations
  3.4.1. Subject
  3.4.2. Direct object
  3.4.3. Indirect object
 3.5. Argument structure
  3.5.1. Core, extended core, and peripheral arguments
  3.5.2. Core arguments
  3.5.3. Extended core arguments The verb 'become' The verb 'get hit by' The verb 'meet' Indirect object
  3.5.4. Peripheral arguments
 3.6. Morphological typology
  3.6.1. Affi xation
  3.6.2. Compounding Structure The word (as opposed to phrasal) status of the compound
  3.6.3. Full reduplication
Chapter 4 The nominal phrase
 4.1. The modifi er
  4.1.1. Modifi er fi lled by NP
  4.1.2. Modifi er fi lled by adnominal
  4.1.3. Modifi er fi lled by other syntactic constructions
  4.1.4. The semantic characteristic of genitive
 4.2. The head
  4.2.1. Formal nouns tukja 'time' mai 'front; before' atu 'back; after' kutu 'thing; fact' tami 'purpose; benefi t' jau 'state' njaa 'manner' su(u)
  4.2.2. Headless structure
  4.2.3. Appositional structure
 4.3. Case
  4.3.1. Basic system
  4.3.2. Nominative and genitive
  4.3.3. Accusative and partitive The distributional properties of Partitive =a Specifi city and partitive Partitive in contexts other than narrative converbal clauses Partitive in narrative convernal clauses The function of partitive: a cross-linguistic perspective The two principles for partitive marking Revisiting specifi city Allomorphy of partitive Accusative
  4.3.4. Dative and allative Time Possessor Experiencer Passive agent Result of change Location Causee agent Benefi ciary Goal-Location and Goal Object of communication
  4.3.5. Instrumental =sii
  4.3.6. Associative =tu
  4.3.7. Comparative =jarruu
  4.3.8. Ablative =kara
  4.3.9. Limitative =gami
  4.3.10. Absence of case marking Subject case marking and information structure Object case marking and information-structure Case ellipsis
Chapter 5 Morphology of nominals and adnominals
 5.1. Nominals and adnominals: overview
  5.1.1. The distribution in terms of NP structure
  5.1.2. Demonstratives
 5.2. Subclassifi cation of nominal
  5.2.1. Nouns
  5.2.2. Pronouns Personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns Reformulating personal pronominal system: minimal-augment system Refl exive pronouns
  5.2.3. Numerals
  5.2.4. Interrogatives Basic forms Complex form: 'how' Complex form: 'why/how'
  5.2.5. Indefi nites
  5.2.6. Non-pronominal demonstrative nominal Demonstrative locatives Demonstrative manner words
 5.3. The internal structure of the nominal word
  5.3.1. Diminutive -gama
  5.3.2. Plural -mi/-ta, etc.
  5.3.3. Approximative -nagi
 5.4. Adnominals
  5.4.1. Demonstrative adnominals
  5.4.2. Other adnominals
Chapter 6 Verb morphology
 6.1. Functional overview
  6.1.1. Verb infl ection and fi niteness
  6.1.2. Tense, mood, negation, voice, and aspect Tense, mood-modality, and negation Voice Aspect
  6.1.3. Infl ection and clause combining
 6.2. The structure of the verb word
  6.2.1. Stem class
  6.2.2. Thematic vowel (stem extension)
  6.2.3. Some notes on the thematic vowel analysis
 6.3. Infl ectional morphology
  6.3.1. Finite infl ection
  6.3.2. Non-fi nite infl ection Narrative converbs Other converbs
  6.3.3. Internal structure of infl ectional endings Finite realis infl ection as -(NEG)-TENSE-MOOD Finite infl ection as -TENSE-MOOD[NEG]
  6.3.4. Morphophonemics of Class 2 athematic stems Stem-fi nal stop lenition Class 2 stems ending in fricative and resonant Class 2 stems that end in /v/ Class 2 stems with -u thematic vowel Morphophonemic nominalization
  6.3.5. Irregular verbs Deictic directional verb 'come' Light verb (a)s- 'do' Negative verb njaa- 'not exist'
  6.3.6. Existential verb, state verb, and copula verb Existential verb Copula verb State verb
 6.4. Derivational morphology
  6.4.1. Derivational affi xes Causative -sїmi, -as Passive-malefactive-potential -(r)ai Honorifi c -(s)ama(r)
  6.4.2. Primary stem Compounds Serial verb construction (SVC) Auxiliary verb construction
 6.5. Citation form
Chapter 7 The predicate phrase
 7.1. The structure of verbal predicate phrase
  7.1.1. Verb infl ection within a VP
  7.1.2. Lexical verb and auxiliary verb
  7.1.3. Phrasal serial verb constructions Defi nition Typological characteristics of phrasal SVCs
  7.1.4. Phrasal auxiliary verb constructions Aspectual AVCs Benefactive AVCs Auxiliary ellipsis
 7.2. The structure of nominal predicate phrase
  7.2.1. Basic structure
  7.2.2. Secondary infl ection
Chapter 8 Property concepts, adjectives, and other derivational precesses
 8.1. Property concept stems (PC stems)
  8.1.1. Property concept
  8.1.2. Morphosyntax of the PC stem Prototypical PC stems: (a-f) Less prototypical PC stems: (g-j) Less prototypical nominal stems: (k-m)
  8.1.3. Non-class-changing derivation by -gi 'seem; appear'
 8.2. The adjective class
  8.2.1. Overview Morphology Semantics Syntax
  8.2.2. Adjectives in NP structure Highly restricted argument function Skewed functional preference for the modifi er NP function Modifi cational constraint
  8.2.3. Adjectives in VP structure
  8.2.4. Adjectives derived from nominal stems
  8.2.5. Summary
 8.3. Deriving nominals, verbs, and adverbs
  8.3.1. State nominal derivation with -sa
  8.3.2. PC adverb with -fї
  8.3.3. PC verb with -ka(r) Diachronic account of -ka(r) The PC verb as a subclass of verb
  8.3.4. Compound nominals derived from PC stems Overview Lexical head compounds Dummy head compounds
 8.4. Adjective, compound nominal, and PC verb: functional account
  8.4.1. Dummy head compound vs PC verb: predicative function
  8.4.2. Adjective vs lexical head compound: attributive function
  8.4.3. Adnominal clause vs adjective: syntactic attributivefunction
 8.5. Class-changing derivation
  8.5.1. Noun-to-verb derivation (verbalisation)
  8.5.2. Verb-to-noun derivation (nominalisation)
  8.5.3. Verb-to-PC-stem derivation 'wanting to' -busї 'diffi cult to' -guri 'easy to' -jasї
Chapter 9 Bound markers
 9.1. Overview of bound markers
 9.2. Conjunction markers
  9.2.1. Temporal =kja(a)
  9.2.2. 'So' conjunction =(ss)iba
  9.2.3. 'But' conjunction =suga
 9.3. Modal markers
  9.3.1. Dubitative =bjaam
  9.3.2. Dubitative 2 =gagara
  9.3.3. Hearsay =ca and =tim(dara/dooi)
  9.3.4. Uncertainty =pazї
  9.3.5. Addressive assertive =su(u)da
  9.3.6. Certainty =dara
  9.3.7. Emphatic =doo(i)
  9.3.8. Reserved emphatic =saa
 9.4. Limiter markers
  9.4.1. 'Too' quantifi er =mai
  9.4.2. 'Only' quantifi er =tjaaki
  9.4.3. 'Only' quantifi er 2: =bakaar
  9.4.4. 'Nothing' quantifi er =cumma
  9.4.5. 'Primarily' qualifi er =kara
  9.4.6. Emphatic qualifi er =dumma
  9.4.7. Contrastive =gami
 9.5. Information-structure markers
  9.5.1. Topic markers Object topic =ba(a) Non-object topic =a
  9.5.2. Focus markers Declarative focus =du Interrogative focus =ru and =ga
 9.6. Discourse markers
  9.6.1. Information-updater =ju(u)
  9.6.2. 'How about' =da
  9.6.3. Confi rmative =i
  9.6.4. Emotional =ra(a), =sja(a)
  9.6.5. Question =ru/=ga
  9.6.6. Question 2 =e(e)
Chapter 10 The simple sentence
 10.1. Speech acts and clause types
  10.1.1. Declarative clauses
  10.1.2. Interrogative clauses
  10.1.3. Imperative clauses
  10.1.4. Mismatches or ambiguous cases Polite command Rhetorical question Self question and clause types
 10.2. Proper inclusion, equation, state, location, and possession
  10.2.1. Proper inclusion
  10.2.2. Equation
  10.2.3. State
  10.2.4. Location
  10.2.5. Possession
 10.3. Negation
  10.3.1. Infl ectional negation
  10.3.2. Negation of existential and state verbs
  10.3.3. Negation of PC verb
 10.4. Valency changing
  10.4.1. Causative Morphological causative Lexical intransitive-transitive pairs Anticausative
  10.4.2. Passive
  10.4.3. Malefactive
  10.4.4. Refl exive
 10.5. Tense, mood, and aspect
  10.5.1. Tense and mood Realis mood Irrealis mood The verb form unmarked for mood Relative tense
  10.5.2. Aspect Progressive Resultative Prospective Perfect Experiential Habitual and iterative
Chapter 11 The complex sentence
 11.1. Overview of complex clause structures
 11.2. Coordination
  11.2.1. Symmetrical coordination
  11.2.2. Asymmetrical coordination
 11.3. Clause chaining
 11.4. Subordination
  11.4.1. Adsentential subordination Temporal clauses with =kja 'when/while' Conditional clause Causal clause with converb 'because; if/when' Continuous clause -gakaazї 'whenever' Immediate anterior clause with -tuu 'as soon as' Aversive clause with -zїm 'lest'
  11.4.2. Adverbial subordination Simultaneous clause with -ccjaaki 'while' Purpose clause with -ga '(go) in order to'
  11.4.3. Adnominal subordination Overview The NP that can be relativised Relativisation of an NP from a complement clause Relativisation of an NP from an adjunct clause Relativisation of an NP from other kinds of complex clause Simple attribution
  11.4.4. Complementation Quotative complement Adnominal clause structure functioning like a complement
 11.5. Focus construction (kakarimusubi)
  11.5.1. A brief note on kakarimusubi
  11.5.2. Focus marking Sentence-Focus Argument Focus Predicate Focus WH Focus Contrastive Focus
 11.6. Degree of dependency: Coordination, clause chaining, adsentential and adverbial subordination
  11.6.1. Focus marking
  11.6.2. Restricted clause-internal topic marking
  11.6.3. Main clause illocutionary scope The scope of negation The scope of interrogation
  11.6.4. Restrictions on relativisation
Subject Index, Language Index


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