A Grammar of IrabuA Southern Ryukyuan Language

シリーズ名
九州大学人文学叢書 12
著者名
下地理則
価格
定価 10,000 円 (税別)
ISBN
978-4-7985-0195-6
仕様
菊判 上製 462頁 C3381
発行年
2017年2月
ご注文
  • 紀伊國屋
  • セブンネットショッピング
  • amazon
  • 楽天ブックス

内容紹介

本書は,南琉球宮古伊良部島方言(沖縄県宮古島市)を体系的・包括的に記述した文法書である。消滅の危機にあるこの言語の構造と体系は,すべての言語学者を惹きつける魅力にあふれている。子音が母音のように,母音が子音のようにふるまう複雑な音節構造。フット構造をベースとしたトーンの交替が生み出す韻律システム。「語とは何か」を考えるきっかけを与えてくれる音韻論と形態論のミスマッチ。人称と数では十分に記述できない代名詞体系。複数の品詞を縦横無尽にまたぐ複雑怪奇な「形容詞」。節のアスペクトをも標示する格標識。情報構造を「可視化」する焦点・主題標示のシステム。

方言地図の1地点データとしてではなく,ひとつの独立した言語体系として正面から向き合ったとき,はじめて明らかにされる事実と一般言語学への重要な問題提起の数々が,ここにはある。2編の自然談話資料つき。

目次

Preface
 
Chapter 1 The Irabu language and its speakers
 
 1.1. Geography
 1.2. Genealogy
 1.3. Notes on the settlement and political history of the Rykuku Islands
 1.4. Sociolinguistic overview
  1.4.1. The name of the language
  1.4.2. Dialects
  1.4.3. The number of speakers
 1.5. Previous works on Irabu
  1.5.1. Detailed grammars
  1.5.2. Grammatical sketches
  1.5.3. Works on specifi c topics
   1.5.3.1. Phonological studies
   1.5.3.2. Morphosyntactic studies
  1.5.4. Dictionaries, texts, and unpublished materials
 1.6. A typological overview of Irabu
  1.6.1. Phonology
  1.6.2. Morphosyntax
 1.7. Method and data
 1.8. Organisation of this grammar
 
Chapter 2 Phonology
 
 2.1. Segmentation
  2.1.1. Grammatical word
  2.1.2. Phonological word
 2.2. Classes of phonemes
  2.2.1. Consonants
  2.2.2. Glides
  2.2.3. Vowels
 2.3. Minimal or quasi-minimal contrasts
  2.3.1. Consonants (stops, fricatives, and resonants)
  2.3.2. Glides
  2.3.3. Vowels
 2.4. The structure of the root word
  2.4.1. Word template
  2.4.2. Nucleic resonants
  2.4.3. Heavy structures
  2.4.4. Examples of root word structures
   2.4.4.1. Examples of words with an initial syllable only
   2.4.4.2. Examples of words with an initial and a non-initial syllable, showing the structure of the initial syllable
   2.4.4.3. Examples of words with an initial and a non-initial syllable, showing the structure of the non-initial syllable
   2.4.4.4. Examples of words with a presyllable plus initial syllable
   2.4.4.5. Examples of words consisting only of a presyllable (a syllabic resonant)
 2.5. Phonotactics of the word-plus
  2.5.1. Four primary phonotactic constraints of the word(-plus)
   2.5.1.1. Final C
   2.5.1.2. Medial cluster
   2.5.1.3. Cluster of non-resonants
   2.5.1.4. Ban on /C.V/ sequence
  2.5.2. Long vowels and diphthongs
  2.5.3. Single onset of initial and non-initial syllables
  2.5.4. Initial syllable onset cluster
  2.5.5. Non-initial cluster
   2.5.5.1. Geminates
   2.5.5.2. Partial geminates (homorganic /n/ + C of any place of articulation)
   2.5.5.3. Non-geminates (resonant Ci + resonant/non-resonant Cj)
  2.5.6. Presyllable plus initial syllable onset
   2.5.6.1. Geminates
   2.5.6.2. Partial geminates (homorganic /n(n)/ + C of any place of articulation)
   2.5.6.3. Non-geminates
  2.5.7. Frequecy-based account of root structures
  2.5.8. Consonant allophony
 2.6. Mora
  2.6.1. Defi nition
  2.6.2. Minimal word
  2.6.3. Length (quantity) contrast
   2.6.3.1. Short vs. long
   2.6.3.2. Non-geminate vs. geminate
 2.7. Phonological alternation rules
  2.7.1. Sequential voicing
  2.7.2. Geminate copy insertion rule
  2.7.3. The /ї/-insertion rule
  2.7.4. The /ï/-spreading rule
  2.7.5. Resonant geminate reduction
  2.7.6. Sequential nasal deletion
  2.7.7. Morpheme-specifi c alternation rules
   2.7.7.1. /j/-insertion for topic and accusative particles
   2.7.7.2. /s/-to-/r/ assimilation
 2.8. Miscellaneous segmental issues
  2.8.1. Homorganic nasal clusters in roots
  2.8.2. Non-nasal alveolar resonants /v/ and /ž/
  2.8.3. The status of glides
   2.8.3.1. General remarks
   2.8.3.2. Advantages in assuming a complex CG
  2.8.4. The phonemic analysis of long vowels
  2.8.5. The problem of the long /ï ï/
 2.9. Prosody
  2.9.1. Prosodic patterns of root words
   2.9.1.1. Prosodic patterns of W2
   2.9.1.2. Prosodic patterns of W3
   2.9.1.3. Prosodic patterns of W4 and longer words
   2.9.1.4. Summary
  2.9.2. Footing
   2.9.2.1. Defi nition of the foot
   2.9.2.2. Ternary footing
  2.9.3. Tone assignment
   2.9.3.1. The Principle of Rhythmic Alternation
   2.9.3.2. The rule
   2.9.3.3. Summary
  2.9.4. Phrasal mapping of the alternating rhythm
 2.10. Phonological characteristics of compounds
  2.10.1. Productive compounds
  2.10.2. Lexicalised compounds
 
Chapter 3 Descriptive preliminaries
 
 3.1. Phrase structure
  3.1.1. Predicate phrase
   3.1.1.1. Verbal predicate
   3.1.1.2 Nominal predicate
  3.1.2. Nominal phrase
 3.2. Word, affi x and clitic
  3.2.1. Morphological dependency
   3.2.1.1. Isolatability test
   3.2.1.2. Reordering test
   3.2.1.3. Combinability test
  3.2.2. Phonological dependency
   3.2.2.1. Overview
   3.2.2.2. External clitics
  3.2.3. Problematic cases
   3.2.3.1. Auxuliary verb
   3.2.3.2. Clitics of the bound-word type
   3.2.3.3. Clitics with a limited combinability with a phonological host
 3.3. Word classes
  3.3.1. Nominals
  3.3.2. Adnominals
  3.3.3. Verbs
  3.3.4. Adjectives
  3.3.5. Bound markers
   3.3.5.1. Argument markers
   3.3.5.2. Predicate markers
   3.3.5.3. Discourse markers
   3.3.5.4. Relative ordering within bound marker chains
  3.3.6. Others
   3.3.6.1. Underived adverbs
   3.3.6.2. Derived adverbs
   3.3.6.3. Conjunctions
   3.3.6.4. Interjections
 3.4. Grammatical relations
  3.4.1. Subject
  3.4.2. Direct object
  3.4.3. Indirect object
 3.5. Argument structure
  3.5.1. Core, extended core, and peripheral arguments
  3.5.2. Core arguments
  3.5.3. Extended core arguments
   3.5.3.1. The verb 'become'
   3.5.3.2. The verb 'get hit by'
   3.5.3.3. The verb 'meet'
   3.5.3.4. Indirect object
  3.5.4. Peripheral arguments
 3.6. Morphological typology
  3.6.1. Affi xation
  3.6.2. Compounding
   3.6.2.1. Structure
   3.6.2.2. The word (as opposed to phrasal) status of the compound
  3.6.3. Full reduplication
 
Chapter 4 The nominal phrase
 
 4.1. The modifi er
  4.1.1. Modifi er fi lled by NP
  4.1.2. Modifi er fi lled by adnominal
  4.1.3. Modifi er fi lled by other syntactic constructions
  4.1.4. The semantic characteristic of genitive
 4.2. The head
  4.2.1. Formal nouns
   4.2.1.1. tukja 'time'
   4.2.1.2. mai 'front; before'
   4.2.1.3. atu 'back; after'
   4.2.1.4. kutu 'thing; fact'
   4.2.1.5. tami 'purpose; benefi t'
   4.2.1.6. jau 'state'
   4.2.1.7. njaa 'manner'
   4.2.1.8. su(u)
  4.2.2. Headless structure
  4.2.3. Appositional structure
 4.3. Case
  4.3.1. Basic system
  4.3.2. Nominative and genitive
  4.3.3. Accusative and partitive
   4.3.3.1. The distributional properties of Partitive =a
   4.3.3.2. Specifi city and partitive
   4.3.3.3. Partitive in contexts other than narrative converbal clauses
   4.3.3.4. Partitive in narrative convernal clauses
   4.3.3.5. The function of partitive: a cross-linguistic perspective
   4.3.3.6. The two principles for partitive marking
   4.3.3.7. Revisiting specifi city
   4.3.3.8. Allomorphy of partitive
   4.3.3.9. Accusative
  4.3.4. Dative and allative
   4.3.4.1. Time
   4.3.4.2. Possessor
   4.3.4.3. Experiencer
   4.3.4.4. Passive agent
   4.3.4.5. Result of change
   4.3.4.6. Location
   4.3.4.7. Causee agent
   4.3.4.8. Benefi ciary
   4.3.4.9. Goal-Location and Goal
   4.3.4.10. Object of communication
  4.3.5. Instrumental =sii
  4.3.6. Associative =tu
  4.3.7. Comparative =jarruu
  4.3.8. Ablative =kara
  4.3.9. Limitative =gami
  4.3.10. Absence of case marking
   4.3.10.1. Subject case marking and information structure
   4.3.10.2. Object case marking and information-structure
   4.3.10.3. Case ellipsis
 
Chapter 5 Morphology of nominals and adnominals
 
 5.1. Nominals and adnominals: overview
  5.1.1. The distribution in terms of NP structure
  5.1.2. Demonstratives
 5.2. Subclassifi cation of nominal
  5.2.1. Nouns
  5.2.2. Pronouns
   5.2.2.1. Personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns
   5.2.2.2. Reformulating personal pronominal system: minimal-augment system
   5.2.2.3. Refl exive pronouns
  5.2.3. Numerals
  5.2.4. Interrogatives
   5.2.4.1. Basic forms
   5.2.4.2. Complex form: 'how'
   5.2.4.3. Complex form: 'why/how'
  5.2.5. Indefi nites
  5.2.6. Non-pronominal demonstrative nominal
  5.2.6.1. Demonstrative locatives
  5.2.6.2. Demonstrative manner words
 5.3. The internal structure of the nominal word
  5.3.1. Diminutive -gama
  5.3.2. Plural -mi/-ta, etc.
  5.3.3. Approximative -nagi
 5.4. Adnominals
  5.4.1. Demonstrative adnominals
  5.4.2. Other adnominals
 
Chapter 6 Verb morphology
 
 6.1. Functional overview
  6.1.1. Verb infl ection and fi niteness
  6.1.2. Tense, mood, negation, voice, and aspect
   6.1.2.1. Tense, mood-modality, and negation
   6.1.2.2. Voice
   6.1.2.3. Aspect
  6.1.3. Infl ection and clause combining
 6.2. The structure of the verb word
  6.2.1. Stem class
  6.2.2. Thematic vowel (stem extension)
  6.2.3. Some notes on the thematic vowel analysis
 6.3. Infl ectional morphology
  6.3.1. Finite infl ection
  6.3.2. Non-fi nite infl ection
   6.3.2.1. Narrative converbs
   6.3.2.2. Other converbs
  6.3.3. Internal structure of infl ectional endings
   6.3.3.1. Finite realis infl ection as -(NEG)-TENSE-MOOD
   6.3.3.2. Finite infl ection as -TENSE-MOOD[NEG]
  6.3.4. Morphophonemics of Class 2 athematic stems
   6.3.4.1. Stem-fi nal stop lenition
   6.3.4.2. Class 2 stems ending in fricative and resonant
   6.3.4.3. Class 2 stems that end in /v/
   6.3.4.4. Class 2 stems with -u thematic vowel
   6.3.4.5. Morphophonemic nominalization
  6.3.5. Irregular verbs
   6.3.5.1. Deictic directional verb 'come'
   6.3.5.2. Light verb (a)s- 'do'
   6.3.5.3. Negative verb njaa- 'not exist'
  6.3.6. Existential verb, state verb, and copula verb
   6.3.6.1. Existential verb
   6.3.6.2. Copula verb
   6.3.6.3. State verb
 6.4. Derivational morphology
  6.4.1. Derivational affi xes
   6.4.1.1. Causative -sїmi, -as
   6.4.1.2. Passive-malefactive-potential -(r)ai
   6.4.1.3. Honorifi c -(s)ama(r)
  6.4.2. Primary stem
   6.4.2.1. Compounds
   6.4.2.2. Serial verb construction (SVC)
   6.4.2.3. Auxiliary verb construction
 6.5. Citation form
 
Chapter 7 The predicate phrase
 
 7.1. The structure of verbal predicate phrase
  7.1.1. Verb infl ection within a VP
  7.1.2. Lexical verb and auxiliary verb
  7.1.3. Phrasal serial verb constructions
   7.1.3.1. Defi nition
   7.1.3.2. Typological characteristics of phrasal SVCs
  7.1.4. Phrasal auxiliary verb constructions
   7.1.4.1. Aspectual AVCs
   7.1.4.2. Benefactive AVCs
   7.1.4.3. Auxiliary ellipsis
 7.2. The structure of nominal predicate phrase
  7.2.1. Basic structure
  7.2.2. Secondary infl ection
 
Chapter 8 Property concepts, adjectives, and other derivational precesses
 
 8.1. Property concept stems (PC stems)
  8.1.1. Property concept
  8.1.2. Morphosyntax of the PC stem
   8.1.2.1. Prototypical PC stems: (a-f)
   8.1.2.2. Less prototypical PC stems: (g-j)
   8.1.2.3. Less prototypical nominal stems: (k-m)
  8.1.3. Non-class-changing derivation by -gi 'seem; appear'
 8.2. The adjective class
  8.2.1. Overview
   8.2.1.1. Morphology
   8.2.1.2. Semantics
   8.2.1.3. Syntax
  8.2.2. Adjectives in NP structure
   8.2.2.1. Highly restricted argument function
   8.2.2.2. Skewed functional preference for the modifi er NP function
   8.2.2.3. Modifi cational constraint
  8.2.3. Adjectives in VP structure
  8.2.4. Adjectives derived from nominal stems
  8.2.5. Summary
 8.3. Deriving nominals, verbs, and adverbs
  8.3.1. State nominal derivation with -sa
  8.3.2. PC adverb with -fї
  8.3.3. PC verb with -ka(r)
   8.3.3.1. Diachronic account of -ka(r)
   8.3.3.2. The PC verb as a subclass of verb
  8.3.4. Compound nominals derived from PC stems
   8.3.4.1. Overview
   8.3.4.2. Lexical head compounds
   8.3.4.3. Dummy head compounds
 8.4. Adjective, compound nominal, and PC verb: functional account
  8.4.1. Dummy head compound vs PC verb: predicative function
  8.4.2. Adjective vs lexical head compound: attributive function
  8.4.3. Adnominal clause vs adjective: syntactic attributivefunction
 8.5. Class-changing derivation
  8.5.1. Noun-to-verb derivation (verbalisation)
  8.5.2. Verb-to-noun derivation (nominalisation)
  8.5.3. Verb-to-PC-stem derivation
   8.5.3.1. 'wanting to' -busї
   8.5.3.2. 'diffi cult to' -guri
   8.5.3.3. 'easy to' -jasї
 
Chapter 9 Bound markers
 
 9.1. Overview of bound markers
 9.2. Conjunction markers
  9.2.1. Temporal =kja(a)
  9.2.2. 'So' conjunction =(ss)iba
  9.2.3. 'But' conjunction =suga
 9.3. Modal markers
  9.3.1. Dubitative =bjaam
  9.3.2. Dubitative 2 =gagara
  9.3.3. Hearsay =ca and =tim(dara/dooi)
  9.3.4. Uncertainty =pazї
  9.3.5. Addressive assertive =su(u)da
  9.3.6. Certainty =dara
  9.3.7. Emphatic =doo(i)
  9.3.8. Reserved emphatic =saa
 9.4. Limiter markers
  9.4.1. 'Too' quantifi er =mai
  9.4.2. 'Only' quantifi er =tjaaki
  9.4.3. 'Only' quantifi er 2: =bakaar
  9.4.4. 'Nothing' quantifi er =cumma
  9.4.5. 'Primarily' qualifi er =kara
  9.4.6. Emphatic qualifi er =dumma
  9.4.7. Contrastive =gami
 9.5. Information-structure markers
  9.5.1. Topic markers
   9.5.1.1. Object topic =ba(a)
   9.5.1.2. Non-object topic =a
  9.5.2. Focus markers
   9.5.2.1. Declarative focus =du
   9.5.2.2. Interrogative focus =ru and =ga
 9.6. Discourse markers
  9.6.1. Information-updater =ju(u)
  9.6.2. 'How about' =da
  9.6.3. Confi rmative =i
  9.6.4. Emotional =ra(a), =sja(a)
  9.6.5. Question =ru/=ga
  9.6.6. Question 2 =e(e)
 
Chapter 10 The simple sentence
 
 10.1. Speech acts and clause types
  10.1.1. Declarative clauses
  10.1.2. Interrogative clauses
  10.1.3. Imperative clauses
  10.1.4. Mismatches or ambiguous cases
   10.1.4.1. Polite command
   10.1.4.2. Rhetorical question
   10.1.4.3. Self question and clause types
 10.2. Proper inclusion, equation, state, location, and possession
  10.2.1. Proper inclusion
  10.2.2. Equation
  10.2.3. State
  10.2.4. Location
  10.2.5. Possession
 10.3. Negation
  10.3.1. Infl ectional negation
  10.3.2. Negation of existential and state verbs
  10.3.3. Negation of PC verb
 10.4. Valency changing
  10.4.1. Causative
   10.4.1.1. Morphological causative
   10.4.1.2. Lexical intransitive-transitive pairs
   10.4.1.3. Anticausative
  10.4.2. Passive
  10.4.3. Malefactive
  10.4.4. Refl exive
 10.5. Tense, mood, and aspect
  10.5.1. Tense and mood
   10.5.1.1. Realis mood
   10.5.1.2. Irrealis mood
   10.5.1.3. The verb form unmarked for mood
   10.5.1.4. Relative tense
  10.5.2. Aspect
   10.5.2.1. Progressive
   10.5.2.2. Resultative
   10.5.2.3. Prospective
   10.5.2.4. Perfect
   10.5.2.5. Experiential
   10.5.2.6. Habitual and iterative
 
Chapter 11 The complex sentence
 
 11.1. Overview of complex clause structures
 11.2. Coordination
  11.2.1. Symmetrical coordination
  11.2.2. Asymmetrical coordination
 11.3. Clause chaining
 11.4. Subordination
  11.4.1. Adsentential subordination
   11.4.1.1. Temporal clauses with =kja 'when/while'
   11.4.1.2. Conditional clause
   11.4.1.3. Causal clause with converb 'because; if/when'
   11.4.1.4. Continuous clause -gakaazї 'whenever'
   11.4.1.5. Immediate anterior clause with -tuu 'as soon as'
   11.4.1.6. Aversive clause with -zїm 'lest'
  11.4.2. Adverbial subordination
   11.4.2.1. Simultaneous clause with -ccjaaki 'while'
   11.4.2.2. Purpose clause with -ga '(go) in order to'
  11.4.3. Adnominal subordination
   11.4.3.1. Overview
   11.4.3.2. The NP that can be relativised
   11.4.3.3. Relativisation of an NP from a complement clause
   11.4.3.4. Relativisation of an NP from an adjunct clause
   11.4.3.5. Relativisation of an NP from other kinds of complex clause
   11.4.3.6. Simple attribution
  11.4.4. Complementation
   11.4.4.1. Quotative complement
   11.4.4.2. Adnominal clause structure functioning like a complement
 11.5. Focus construction (kakarimusubi)
  11.5.1. A brief note on kakarimusubi
  11.5.2. Focus marking
   11.5.2.1. Sentence-Focus
   11.5.2.2. Argument Focus
   11.5.2.3. Predicate Focus
   11.5.2.4. WH Focus
   11.5.2.5. Contrastive Focus
 11.6. Degree of dependency: Coordination, clause chaining, adsentential and adverbial subordination
  11.6.1. Focus marking
  11.6.2. Restricted clause-internal topic marking
  11.6.3. Main clause illocutionary scope
   11.6.3.1. The scope of negation
   11.6.3.2 The scope of interrogation
  11.6.4. Restrictions on relativisation
 
Appendix
Bibliography
Subject Index, Language Index

著者紹介

下地理則(しもじ みちのり)
九州大学大学院人文科学研究院言語学・応用言語学講座准教授。
Ph.D. (Australian National University)。専門は言語学。
東京外国語大学アジアアフリカ言語文化研究所特任研究員(2008-2009)、
群馬県立女子大学専任講師(2009-2012)を経て現職。

学術図書刊行助成

お勧めBOOKS

空にかかるはしご

空にかかるはしご

日本では医療が進歩して救える命が増えた一方、それでも毎年約5,000人の子どもた...

詳細へ

元素の名前辞典

元素の名前辞典

欧米以外で初めて発見された元素である、113番元素の名前がニホニウムに決定したこ...

詳細へ

魯迅

魯迅

「芸術的完成さでは魯迅のあらゆる作品中で第一位を占める」(竹内好『魯迅入門』)。...

詳細へ

九州大学出版会

〒814-0001
福岡県福岡市早良区百道浜3-8-34
九州大学産学官連携イノベーション
プラザ305
電話(092)833-9150
FAX(092)833-9160
E-mail : info@kup.or.jp

このページの上部へ